A Framework for Integrating Emerging Technologies into Technical and Vocational Education and Training

  • Lossan Bonde Adventist University of Africa
Keywords: AI, efficient educational systems, AR, VR, IOT


Artificial Intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR) are some of the trending technologies that are significantly impacting the world. AI aims to produce machines capable of tasks requiring thinking and intelligence. AI systems are exploding in all industries and all sectors of human activities. VR uses modelling and simulation to produce systems that enable people to interact with virtual objects in virtual environments. In contrast, AR modifies the real-world environment by adding computer-generated objects. The combination of VR and AR has led to the metaverse technology already used in industry and education. IoT is about using small devices connected to the internet to monitor and control physical objects or systems remotely or to collect valuable data from the environment. While all these technologies have great promises and potential positive impacts on education, there is no obvious way of integrating them into the educational system. This study aims to design a framework for assessing and integrating emerging technologies to their full potential in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems. The research uses an exploratory design with secondary data collected from existing literature. The analysis of existing literature helped in identifying the key skills and competencies that TVET programmes must deliver. Then, the potential impacts of emerging technologies on these skills are derived. The study proposes 1) a method for assessing the potential of a technology and 2) a method for determining the highest possible level of integrating technology in TVET. The study also provides valuable recommendations to TVET institution administrators, trainers, and trainee. Therefore, this paper's main contribution is introducing a new framework for integrating AI, AR/VR and IoT into TVET education. TVET institutions administrators, trainers and trainee are the primary beneficiaries of the outcome of this research. The main limitation of this study is that its application requires expertise.

Article Views and Downloands Counter

Download data is not yet available.


Aprinaldi, A., Widiaty, I., & Abdullah, A. G. (2018). Integrating SAMR learning model in vocational education. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 434(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/434/1/012309

Baidoo-Anu, D., & Owusu Ansah, L. (2023). Education in the era of generative artificial intelligence (AI): Understanding the potential benefits of ChatGPT in promoting teaching and learning. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4337484

Baker, T., Smith, L., & Anissa, N. (2019). Educ-AI-tion rebooted? Exploring the future of artificial intelligence in schools and colleges. In Nesta (Vol. 12, Issue February). https://media.nesta.org.uk/documents/Future_of_AI_and_education_v5_WEB.pdf

Baza van, L. C., Roibu, H., Petcu, F. B., Cismaru, S. I., & George, B. N. (2021). Virtual reality and augmented reality in education. Proceedings of the 2021 30th Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering, EAEEIE 2021. https://doi.org/10.1109/EAEEIE50507.2021.9531005

Ciolacu, M. I., Binder, L., & Popp, H. (2019). Enabling IoT in education 4.0 with biosensors from wearables and artificial intelligence. SIITME 2019 - 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging, Proceedings, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1109/SIITME47687.2019.8990763

Denhere, V., & Moloi, T. (2021). Readiness of public TVET for the Fourth Industrial Revolution : The case of South Africa. https://ujcontent.uj.ac.za/esploro/outputs/journal Article/Readiness-of-Public-TVET-for-the/9910370807691

Duarte, M. L., Santos, L. R., Guimarães Júnior, J. B., & Peccin, M. S. (2020). Learning anatomy by virtual reality and augmented reality. A scope review. Morphologie, 104(347), 254– 266. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MORPHO.2020.08.004

Elmqaddem, N. (2019). Augmented reality and virtual reality in education. Myth or reality? International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(3), 234–242. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v14i03.9289

Fitria, T. N. (2023). Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technology in education: Media of teaching and learning: A review. International Journal of Computer and Information System (IJCIS), 04(01), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.29040/IJCIS.V4I1.102

Fraga-Lamas, P., Lopes, S. I., & Fernández-Caramés, T. M. (2021). Green IoT and edge AI as key technological enablers for a sustainable digital transition towards a smart circular economy: An industry 5.0 use case. Sensors, 21(17). https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175745

Guan, C., Mou, J., & Jiang, Z. (2020). Artificial intelligence innovation in education: A twenty- year data-driven historical analysis keywords: Artificial intelligence Systematic review intelligent tutoring systems virtual reality educational data mining. International Journal of Innovation Studies, 4(2020), 134–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijis.2020.09.001

Hassan, R. H., Hassan, M. T., Naseer, S., Khan, Z., & Jeon, M. (2021). ICT enabled TVET education: a systematic literature review. IEEE Access. https://doi.org/10.1109 /ACCESS. 2021.3085910

Huang, K. T., Ball, C., Francis, J., Ratan, R., Boumis, J., & Fordham, J. (2019). Augmented versus virtual reality in education: An exploratory study examining science knowledge retention when using augmented reality/virtual reality mobile applications. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(2), 105–110. https://doi.org/ 10.1089/cyber.2018.0150

Jafar, D. S. A., Saud, M. S., Hamid, M. Z. A., Suhairom, N., Hisham, M. H. M., & Zaid, Y. H. (2020). TVET trainer professional competency framework in industry 4.0 era. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 1969–1979. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020. 080534

Kaplan-Rakowski, R., Kaplan-Rakowski, R., Grotewold, K., Hartwick, P., & Papin, K. (2023). Generative AI and trainers' perspectives on its implementation in education. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 34(2), 313–338.

Misra, N. N., Dixit, Y., Al-Mallahi, A., Bhullar, M. S., Upadhyay, R., & Martynenko, A. (2022). IoT, big data, and artificial intelligence in agriculture and food industry. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 9(9), 6305–6324. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2020.2998584

Mukhopadhyay, S. C., Tyagi, S. K. S., Suryadevara, N. K., Piuri, V., Scotti, F., & Zeadally, S. (2021). Artificial intelligence-based sensors for next generation IoT applications: A review. IEEE Sensors Journal, 21(22), 24920–24932. https://doi.org/10.1109/ JSEN.2021.3055618

Nkau, P. (2021). Educational leadership towards management efficiency: A case study of TVET colleges. https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=M3K3ye0AAAAJ&hl=en

Nugraha, T. P., Pratama, R., Wahyudin, D., & Somantri, Y. (2021). Development of integrated IoT trainer (LRioT) for practical work in electrical engineering education program amid pandemic. 244–247. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210203.126

Omar, M. K., Zahar, F. N., & Rashid, A. M. (2020). Knowledge, skills, and attitudes as predictors in determining trainers' competency in Malaysian TVET institutions. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3 3C), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer. 2020.081612

Rai, A., Sharma, D., Rai, S., Singh, A., & Singh, K. K. (2021). IoT-aided robotics development and applications with AI. In Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation (pp. 1–14). Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66222-6_1

Md Yusoff, Harun, A. & Zakaria, A., M. (2020). TVET in Malaysia: Capabilities and challenges as viable pathway and educational attainment. Journal on Technical and Vocational Education, 5(1), 52–58. http://upikpolimas.edu.my/ojs/

Sithole, M. D., Wissink, H., & Chiwawa, N. (2022). Enhancing the management systems and structures of technical vocational education and training colleges in South Africa. Administratio Publica, 30(3), 86–105. https://doi.org/10.10520/EJC-ADMINPUB_ V30_N3_A7

Su, J., & Yang, W. (2023). Unlocking the power of ChatGPT: A Framework for applying generative AI in education. ECNU Review of Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 20965311231168423

Tuenpusa, P., Boonpoo, S., Chaisuk, P. (2021). Technical vocational education and training (TVET) workforce skill development policy and strategy to support 4th industrial revolution due to disruptive technology. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 9(4), 596–607. https://doi.org/10.4236/JHRSS.2021.94037

Zhai, X., Chu, X., Chai, C. S., Jong, M. S. Y., Istenic, A., Spector, M., Liu, J. B., Yuan, J., & Li, Y. (2021). A Review of artificial intelligence (AI) in education from 2010 to 2020. Complexity, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8812542
How to Cite
Bonde, L. (2024). A Framework for Integrating Emerging Technologies into Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Africa Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 9(1), 97-107. https://doi.org/10.69641/afritvet.2024.91184